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A substance use disorder (SUD) is a mental disorder that affects a person’s brain and behavior, leading to a person’s inability to control their use of substances such as legal or illegal drugs, alcohol, or medications.

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Ketamine hydrochloride is a nonbarbiturate dissociative anesthetic. It is a cyclohexanone derivative that is rapidly acting and produces profound anesthesia and analgesia. Its chemical name is ±)-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino) cyclohexanone hydrochloride; its structural formula is CHClNO. Ketamine is a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and glutamate receptor antagonist. It blocks HCN1 receptors. The unique dissociative action and partial agonism on opiate mu-receptors permit the performance of painful procedures in a consistent state of sedation and patient comfort. See Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Spravato (esketamine) nasal spray, in conjunction with an oral antidepressant, for the treatment of depression in adults who have tried other antidepressant medicines but have not benefited from them (treatment-resistant depression). Patients with major depressive disorder who, despite trying at least two antidepressant treatments given at adequate doses for an adequate duration in the current episode, have not responded to treatment are considered to have treatment-resistant depression.

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Depression is a serious mood disorder that affects your whole body including your mood and thoughts. Depression causes ongoing, extreme feelings of sadness, helplessness, hopeless, and irritability.


Anxiety is an inner, nervous uneasiness that can color thoughts, behaviors, and physical sensations. A state of high arousal. Characterized by inhibition of parasympathetic system


PTSD is a mental health condition in which a person has experienced a traumatic event that causes long-term stress. The traumatic event can be experienced directly, witnessed, or due to repeated exposure to shocking events. A person can also have PTSD when trauma occurs to a close friend or family member.

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